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Title: Українська сатирична публіцистика 20–30-х рр. ХХ ст. в контексті еволюції поглядів на роль критики і самокритики
Other Titles: Ukrainian satirical journalism of 20-30-ies XX century in the context of the evolution of views on the role of criticism and self-criticism
Authors: Зикун Н.І.
Zykun N.І.
Keywords: Сатирична публіцистика,
сатиричне видання,
сатиричний жанр,
satirical journalism,
satirical publications,
satirical genre,
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Запоріжжя
Citation: Зикун Н. І. Українська сатирична публіцистика 20–30-х рр. ХХ ст. в контексті еволюції поглядів на роль критики і самокритики / Н. І. Зикун // Держава та регіони. Серія: Соціальні комунікації : науково-виробничий журнал. – Запоріжжя, 2015. – № 4 (24). – C. 75–80.
Abstract: Досліджується трансформація українського сатиричного дискурсу у 20 – 30 рр. ХХ століття, особливості сатиричної публіцистики на тлі зміни підходів до розуміння й оцінки критики і самокритики, простежується їхній вплив на жанрово-тематичні параметри публіцистики. Доводиться, що в досліджувану епоху сатира набуває виразного політичного забарвлення, визначається соціально-політичними кампаніями, це призводить до зменшення її гостроти й тематичного розмаїття. Сатиричні публікації все рідше з’являються в пресі. У др. пол. 30-х рр. багато сатиричних видань припиняє своє існування. The period of 20-30-ies last century, marked by painful restructuring of satirical discourse under the influence of Soviet ideology is reflected in a number of scientific studies A. Zhyvotko A, V. Vladimirov, I. Krupskiy, A. Kapelyushka, I. Mykhailyna and others. The aim of article is to establish the characteristics of Ukrainian satirical journalism of the first decades of the twentieth century on the basis of changes in approaches to the understanding and evaluation of criticism and self-criticism, its influence on the genre and thematic parameters of journalism. In the studied period the satire gets a clear political overtones, determined by socio-political campaigns, which reduces its visual and thematic diversity. The impoverishment of humorous-satirical newspaper and magazine practice is predetermined by understanding of contradictions in the Soviet society. It was the time when the social premise of conflict free theory was forming which later became almost a fundamental principle of artistic and journalistic reflection of the reality while the inappropriate existence of satire was recognizing in the Soviet reality. Satirical journalism particularly felt the tight control of the party and the existence of multi-censorship. At this time the evolution of satirical genres that lose their artistry and topicality; it reduces the number of satirical publications. In 1928, the XV Congress of the CPSU (b) developing a program of socialist construction and the ways of its implementation, formulated the thesis of criticism and self-criticism “without respect of persons” as one of the key at the time. It was a period of this guiding slogan that somehow found reflection in all spheres of social activity, including journalism. Parties’ notes of the consistent deployment in newspapers criticism and self-criticism from below defined approaches to journalism. Over time, less and less satirical publications appear in print. Their function is partly performed critical information publication-concise, based on documentary evidence, with real names that resembled acts of audits, checks of protocols. Factory newspapers have gradually become the place of existence of journalistic satire dedicated to exposing the facts of some topical activities of specific individuals. In the second half of the 30's many satirical publications ceased to exist. 1937-1938 became a period when there were not any satirical publication in the Ukrainian SSR.
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